Malaria is a parasitic infection spread to humans by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The single-celled parasites are in the genus Plasmodium. Typically, four kinds of malarial parasites infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. P. Knowlesi, a type of malaria that naturally infects macaques in Southeast Asia, may also infect humans, causing malaria that is transmitted from animal to human. 

Helicobacter pylori

Treatment for H. pylori infection involves taking a combination of antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach (acid suppression). Most people do not need to be tested for H. pylori if they do not show signs of infection.

Marburg virus disease

Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg virus disease (MVD) formerly known as Marburg haemorrhagic fever. MVD is a zoonotic infection, transmitted from animals to humans. It is a highly virulent disease that causes hemorrhagic fever with an 88% fatality rate. The virus can spread by human-to-human contact with blood, body fluids and by contact with infected body fluid objects.

H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (Bird Flu)

H5N1 AI is a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that is easily transmitted between birds and is a zoonotic disease (a disease that transmits from animals to people), but it is not well adapted to mammals. There have been reports of possible limited human-to-human transmission, but there has been no evidence of ongoing transmission between people.


Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis (stomach flu) in humans, accounting for more than 60% of cases. It affects people of all ages, but it causes severe acute gastroenteritis in children under the age of five. Norovirus is the most common cause of illness and outbreaks due to contaminated food.

Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

Multidrug resistant TB (MDR TB) is a disease caused by any strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is not effectively killed by both isoniazid and rifampin, two of the first-line, safest and most effective anti-TB medications.


Shigellosis is an acute, invasive, enteric bacterial infection that affects the digestive system. It is caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. Symptoms may appear within 1–2 days of encountering Shigella.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) 2022 Update

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a very common virus that causes infections of the respiratory tract. Other than monitoring for symptoms, most used RSV are diagnosed clinically. Most RSV infections go away on their own in 1-2 weeks.

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus belonging to Enteroviruses. Symptoms usually include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash commonly found on the hands and feet.

Congenital Syphilis

Congenital syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial disease passed from mother to child during pregnancy or birth. When left untreated, syphilis in pregnant women can cause serious health consequences including miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, or birth defects. Congenital syphilis is re-emerging and has risen significantly in recent years. In 2019, for example, there were 53 cases of congenital syphilis, the highest number of cases ever reported in Canada. Case counts have risen significantly since 2019 in the provinces, although numbers for the country as a whole are not yet available.

Poliomyelitis (Polio)

Polio is a highly contagious, vaccine-preventable disease, most often seen in children under 5 years of age. Transmission of polio is person-to-person, mainly through the fecal-oral route and less frequently via contaminated water or food.

mpox (formerly Monkeypox)

mpox (formerly Monkeypox) virus is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. Squirrels, Gambian pouched rats, dormice, and non-human primates have been found to be susceptible to monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus transmission occurs when a person comes into direct or indirect contact with the body fluids or lesion materials of infected animals and humans, including contaminated materials.