## Introduction

In the current literature, there is considerable heterogeneity in common terms related to infectious disease epidemiology and modelling. Furthermore, definitions of these terms are not often provided in research papers. This glossary presents a comprehensive list of terms and their definitions to unify the use and interpretation of infectious disease epidemiology and modelling terminology. Although the most frequently used definitions were included in this glossary, researchers may have alternative definitions for certain terms in the context of their research. Therefore, it is recommended that the readers first check for definitions provided by the authors when reading infectious disease mathematical modelling publications.

#### Filters

## Agent‐based model

Individuals in the model are described as discrete entities with their own characteristics. Also see individual-based model/micro-simulation model.

## Between-host model

## Compartmental model

Population is divided into different compartments, such as different health or epidemiological states, to describe the mechanism of a dynamic epidemic. Compartmental models can be employed to estimate quantities such as basic Reproduction Number, prevalence, and incidence of a disease.

*Example: ***S-I-R-S model:** The following Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model can be used when the immunity conferred after disease is not permanent; a recovered individual becomes susceptible to infection again after a period of time.